FluTrackers

Tracking Infectious Diseases since 2006

PayPal Verified medpedia.com

FluTrackers.com Inc. is a 501(c)(3) charity

Nederlandse taal Foro de Español de FluTrackers Francophones des FluTrackers Forum Italiano FluTrackers Latest Posts

www www.flutrackers.com



Go Back   FluTrackers > Indonesia > Indonesia - Tracking H5N1 Outbreaks > 2006 General News including Multi-Island Outbreak Threads

Closed Thread
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread Display Modes
  #1  
Old May 17th, 2006, 01:05 AM
Sally Furniss's Avatar
Sally Furniss Sally Furniss is offline
Managing Editor - Vice President
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 10,398
People Indonesia Human Cases - May 17, 2006

WHO says 5 more Indonesians have died of bird flu

JAKARTA (AP): The World Health Organization on Wednesday confirmed that five more people have died of the H5N1 strain of bird flu in Indonesia, raising the total number of human fatalities in the archipelago to 30.

Four of the deaths were on the North Sumatra province while one was in the country's second largest city, Surabaya, on East Java, an official said.

Indonesia last year overtook Thailand to tally the second highest number of fatal cases in the world after Vietnam.

The virus has infected poultry populations in 27 of 33 provinces, including easternmost Papua, and the government has come under fire for refusing to carry out mass culls in infected areas.
http://www.thejakartapost.com/detail...7113458&irec=0

Are these another 5 deaths, I am losing count
  #2  
Old May 17th, 2006, 02:29 AM
Sally Furniss's Avatar
Sally Furniss Sally Furniss is offline
Managing Editor - Vice President
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 10,398
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/16/06

JAKARTA, May 17 (Reuters) - An outbreak of H5N1 bird flu involving up to eight members of a family in Indonesia's North Sumatra province is not a case of human-to-human transmission, a Health Ministry official said on Wednesday.

Concern has been growing about the case in which six of the eight have already died. Local tests showed five members of the cluster were positive for the bird flu virus and tests were being carried out on the remaining three.

"The spread was through risk factors from poultry or other animals. There is no proof of human to human," Nyoman Kandun, director-general of disease control, told Reuters.

"The world is watching us. We are not being hasty," he added.

He said authorities were still trying to identify the source of the virus in the cluster case in Kubu Simbelang village in Karo regency, about 50 km (30 miles) south of the North Sumatran city of Medan.

Some reports have suggested chicken manure used as fertiliser might be the link, but there has been no confirmation of this. Infected birds can excrete large amounts of the H5N1 virus and this can be one way it can spread to birds, and people.

The World Health Organisation has sent a team to the area. The agency said it is on alert for signs that the virus is mutating into one that can be easily transmitted between people, a development that could signal the start of a pandemic in which millions could die.

Such a mutation could occur anywhere there is bird flu, the WHO says.

Experts have said in the past that possible bird flu cluster cases among family members do not mean the virus is necessarily mutating. It could be caused by the close contact normal in families.

There have been a number of such examples in Vietnam and Thailand, a WHO spokeswoman said in Geneva earlier this week.

The Indonesian Health Ministry has said blood samples of the five family members who had tested positive locally had been sent to a WHO-affiliated laboratory in Hong Kong for confirmation. Local tests are not considered definitive.

Bird flu has killed 115 people worldwide, the majority in east Asia, since reappearing in 2003. Virtually all the victims caught the disease from poultry.

The WHO has confirmed 25 deaths in Indonesia from the H5N1 virus, the second highest number after Vietnam, which has confirmed 42 deaths.

The virus is endemic in much of Indonesia, and on Tuesday a senior Agriculture Ministry official said H5N1 had been detected for the first time in poultry in remote eastern Papua province.

http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/JAK321517.htm
  #3  
Old May 17th, 2006, 03:48 AM
AlaskaDenise's Avatar
AlaskaDenise AlaskaDenise is offline
Editor, Senior Moderator
 
Join Date: Mar 2006
Posts: 9,377
Default Re: Indonesia - Family in Karo suspected of having bf

Quote:
Originally Posted by AnneZ
Kasus Cluster Flu Burung Kian Besar



JAKARTA -- Kasus flu burung di Kabupaten Karo, Sumatra Utara, merupakan kasus cluster keenam di Indonesia. ''Ini adalah cluster baru dan yang terbesar,'' kata Direktur Pengendalian Penyakit dan Penyehatan Lingkungan, Departemen Kesehatan, I Nyoman Kandun, di Jakarta, Senin (15/5).

Kasus cluster dengan delapan orang yang terinfeksi, menunjukkan kasus cluster makin besar dari waktu ke waktu. ''Sehingga kita harus makin waspada,'' kata dr Tjandra Yoga Aditama SpP(K) DTM&H MARS dari Departemen Pulmonologi dan Kedokteran Respirasi FKUI/RS Persahabatan, Jakarta di Jakarta, Ahad (14/5).

Namun, menurut Kandun, hingga kini belum ada bukti yang menunjukkan adanya penularan virus dari manusia ke manusia ke manusia. Untuk mengetahui ada-tidaknya penularan dari manusia ke manusia, kata dr Tjandra, perlu dilakukan dua hal.

a. Surveilans epidemiologik. Untuk mengetahui kemungkinan penularan dari orang ke orang dan tidak ada riwayat penularan dari sumber yang sama. Contoh yang paling mudah adalah tertularnya 30-an petugas RS di Singapura oleh seorang pasien SARS tahun 2003 yang lalu, yang disebut sebagai superspreader.

b. Penelitian virologi. Untuk mengetahui ada-tidaknya virus baru yang merupakan semacam 'merger' antara virus flu burung dan virus flu manusia. Kalau belum sepenuhnya 'merger', setidaknya ditemukan virus yang bagian dalamnya adalah H5N1 dan bagian luarnya adalah H1N1, misalnya.

Menurut dr Tjandra, kini Indonesia dalam stadium tiga, yaitu hanya ada penularan antara manusia terbatas atau pada keluarga dekat saja. Untuk sampai disebut dalam stadium empat, kata dr Yoga, stadium empat ditandai dengan sekitar 25 orang yang tertular.

Selanjutnya ia mengemukakan hal yang baru dalam penemuan ilmiah virus flu burung adalah ditemukannya reseptor virus flu burung di manusia ternyata ada di paru bagian dalam, yang disebut alveoli. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan dua hal:
1. Kerusakan parunya cepat dan luas.
2. Belum adanya penularan antarmanusia di masyarakat, karena kalau reseptor virus itu jauh di dalam paru, maka tentu tidak mudah terbatukkan ke luar dan menulari orang lain.

Di pihak lain, reseptor virus flu manusia ternyata ada di saluran napas atas, sehingga keluhannya banyak yang sakit tenggorokan dan mudah menular ke orang lain. ''Tetapi, nanti mungkin saja kalau virus flu burung dan virus flu manusia sudah 'merger', maka resptornya ada di saluran napas atas dan bawah. Artinya, mudah tertular dan sekaligus juga dapat menyebabkan radang di paru (pneumonia) yang luas,'' ungkap dr Tjandra. n
http://www.republika.co.id/koran_det...8253&kat_id=13
Translation by my nephew Omar (Indonesian/American):

Clusters of Bird Flu Cases Increasing

JAKARTA – A case of bird flu in the Kabupaten (District) of Karo, Sumatra Utara is the sixth cluster case in Indonesia. “This is the newest and largest cluster to date,” said Director of Disease Control and Environmental Health, Health Department, I Nyoman Kandun, in Jakarta on Monday the 15th of May.

This cluster case, with eight people infected, demonstrates an increase in cluster size over time. “We must be more vigilant,” said Dr. Tjandra Yoga Aditama SpP(K) DTM&H MARS from the Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine at FKUI/RS Persahabatan (hospital) in Jakarta, Ahad on the 14th of May.

However, according to Kandun, there has not been any evidence demonstrating a spread of the virus from human to human. To detect such transmission, Dr. Tjandra says, two procedures need to be implemented.

a. Epidemiological surveillance, to detect the possible transmission of the virus from human to human with no history of infection from the same source, a simple example being the infection of approximately thirty Singaporean hospital workers by a SARS patient in 2003, who was known as a superspreader.

b. Virology research, to detect new viruses formed from a merging of bird flu and its human equivalent. If a full merger has not taken place, hybrid viruses which formed internally of H5N1 and externally of H1N1 may be found, for example.

According to Dr. Tjandra, Indonesia is now in the third stage, consisting of limited human transmission, normally between family members. To be considered in the fourth stage, said Dr. Yoga, there must be 25 confirmed cases of the virus.

Continuing, he explained a new discovery was made regarding the receptors for bird flu in human lungs, which are located within the alveoli of the internal lung structure. The location of these receptors directly contributes to the following symptoms:
1. Rapid, widespread damage within the lungs.
2. No discernible human transmission risk, for the deep location of these receptors contributes to the difficulty of disease spreading through the air.

On the other hand, human flu virus receptors it appears are located in the upper respiratory tract, leading to many complaints of sore throats and the easy spread of the virus. “But, when the human flu virus and the bird flu virus have merged, both sets of receptors will be affected. This means that it will easily spread and cause widespread inflammation of the lungs, also known as pneumonia,” said Dr. Tjandra.

.
__________________
"The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

Last edited by AlaskaDenise; May 17th, 2006 at 05:11 AM.
  #4  
Old May 17th, 2006, 04:17 AM
Sally Furniss's Avatar
Sally Furniss Sally Furniss is offline
Managing Editor - Vice President
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 10,398
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/16/06

WHO confirms six bird flu cases in Indonesia
JAKARTA, May 17 (Reuters) - The World Health Organisation confirmed six more human cases of bird flu infections in Indonesia on Wednesday, including five members of a family whose case has triggered fears of human-to-human transmission.

"There are six confirmations. One from Surabaya and five from Medan. One from Medan is still alive," said Sari Setiogi, the WHO's Indonesia spokeswoman.

An outbreak of H5N1 bird flu involving up to eight members of a family at Medan in North Sumatra province has worried health agencies around the world but a Health Ministry official said on Wednesday it was not a case of human-to-human transmission.

"The spread was through risk factors from poultry or other animals. There is no proof of human to human," Nyoman Kandun, director-general of disease control, told Reuters.
http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/SP44506.htm
  #5  
Old May 17th, 2006, 06:15 AM
Sally Furniss's Avatar
Sally Furniss Sally Furniss is offline
Managing Editor - Vice President
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 10,398
Default Re: Indonesia - Family in Karo suspected of having bf

Great stuff AD. Please pass our thanks on to Omar.

Quote:
Originally Posted by AlaskaDenise
According to Dr. Tjandra, Indonesia is now in the third stage, consisting of limited human transmission, normally between family members. To be considered in the fourth stage, said Dr. Yoga, there must be 25 confirmed cases of the virus.
I guess this means the virus must be passed on 25 times before stage 4 is considered. And it must be exactly the same strain. So WHO have to test all 25 cases to make sure it was passed between them.
  #6  
Old May 17th, 2006, 07:34 AM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Commentary at

http://www.recombinomics.com/News/05...nesia_WHO.html
  #7  
Old May 17th, 2006, 07:49 AM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

H5N1 spread among people not ruled out in Indonesia
17 May 2006 10:40:08 GMT
Source: Reuters
HONG KONG, May 17 (Reuters) -" Health experts are
investigating how several members of a family in
Indonesia's North Sumatra province contracted the H5N1
bird flu virus and are not ruling out the possibility
of human-to-human transmission.
Clusters of human infections are worrying as they
indicate that the virus, which has killed 115 people
worldwide since late 2003, might be mutating into a
form that is easily transmissible among humans. That,
experts say, could spark a pandemic in which millions
might die.
Samples taken from six members of the family were sent
to a WHO-affiliated laboratory in Hong Kong and five
tested positive for H5N1. Results of the sixth were
still pending.
According to the World Health Organisation and experts
familiar with the case, the family -- which raised a
small number of pigs and had chickens, ducks and geese
in the neighbourhood -- held a barbecue on April 29
when they ate pork and chicken.
The first person to fall ill was a 37-year-old woman,
and two of her sons, her brother, sister, niece and
nephew later fell sick. Except for the woman's
brother, everyone has since died.
Contrary to earlier reports from the Indonesian
government that eight members of the family were
infected, the WHO says the eighth person, a woman, had
fever for only a day and is now well. Local tests
showed she was not infected with H5N1.
Samples taken from 11 pigs, four geese, four ducks and
an unspecified number of chickens in Kubu Simbelang
village in Karo regency, where the family lived, have
also turned up negative for H5N1, but experts are not
ruling anything out.
"The possibility that they may have been infected by
the same source is still there," said Sari Setiogi,
the WHO spokeswoman in Indonesia. More animal samples
will be collected for local tests.
CLUSTERS DRAW SUSPICION
"Any time we have a cluster, it raises the suspicion
that human-to-human transmission may have occurred. We
don't rule out either way ... it is too early to make
any conclusion because investigations are still going
on," Setiogi said.
More than 15 people attended the barbecue, but there
were no signs of any spread beyond this cluster of
seven, she said.
There have been a few other probable cases of
human-to-human transmission of the virus in Hong Kong
and Thailand in the past, possibly due to prolonged
and very close contact, although these have never
spread beyond the initial clusters.
But Indonesia's Health Ministry said the cluster in
Sumatra was not a case of human-to-human transmission.

"The spread was through risk factors from poultry or
other animals. There is no proof of human-to-human,"
Nyoman Kandun, director-general of disease control,
told Reuters.
But an Indonesian agriculture official who declined to
be identified said animal tests have not shed any
light.
"There is a big question mark. Blood samples from all
kinds of animals from chickens, ducks, geese, birds,
pigs, cats and do gs turned out negative so far.
Manure has also been checked. The result is negative,"
the Jakarta-based official said.
In Hong Kong, microbiologists tasked with decoding the
genomic sequence of the six virus samples cautioned
against making any quick conclusion either way. Guan
Yi, who heads the laboratory decoding the samples,
said the long time lag of nine days between the first
and last victims showing symptoms of the disease was
unusual.
The 37-year-old woman fell ill on April 27, while one
of her sons and her sister -- the last ones to fall
sick -- felt the first symptoms on May 5. The WHO
recommends that an incubation period of seven days be
used for field investigations.
"If they were all infected by the same source, their
onset time (of illness) would have been closer, but
that is not the case ... The later cases may involve
the possibility of human-to-human transmission," Guan
told Reuters.
"They may have infected one another ... but we have no
evidence. This needs to be investigated by the
locals."
Some reports say chicken manure used as fertiliser
might be the link. Infected birds can excrete large
amounts of the virus and birds and people can be
infected this way.
"This could be one likely infection source," Guan
added.

http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/interna...=1147863230000
  #8  
Old May 17th, 2006, 08:08 AM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Commentary at

http://www.recombinomics.com/News/05..._Evidence.html
  #9  
Old May 17th, 2006, 09:41 AM
emmysue emmysue is offline
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 121
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

http://in.today.reuters.com/news/new...archived=False

JAKARTA (Reuters) - A 12-year-old Indonesian boy died of bird flu four days ago in Jakarta's eastern suburb of Bekasi, a health ministry official said on Wednesday, citing the results of local tests.

Blood samples have been sent to a World Health Organisation-affiliated laboratory in Hong Kong for confirmation, spokeswoman Lily Sulistyowati said. Local tests are not considered definitive.

"We are waiting for the WHO report. It is still being studied" whether the victim had contact with poultry, she said.

If confirmed by WHO, the boy would be Indonesia's 31th death from the H5N1 virus, which is endemic in poultry in the world's fourth most populous nation.

Contact with infected birds is the most common means of transmission of the bird flu virus in humans.

So far, the WHO has confirmed 30 human deaths from the virus in Indonesia. Scientists fear H5N1 could mutate and spread easily from person to person, triggering a pandemic.

Earlier on Wednesday, the WHO confirmed six more human cases of bird flu infections in Indonesia, including five members of a family whose case has triggered fears of human-to-human transmission. The boy's death is a separate case and is not part of the six WHO-confirmed infections.
  #10  
Old May 17th, 2006, 09:45 AM
sharon sanders's Avatar
sharon sanders sharon sanders is offline
Editor-in-Chief & President
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 25,859
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Thanks Emmysue.
__________________
"May the long time sun
Shine upon you,
All love surround you,
And the pure light within you
Guide your way on."

"Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, lies your calling."
Aristotle

“In a gentle way, you can shake the world.”
Mohandas Gandhi

Be the light that is within.
  #11  
Old May 17th, 2006, 10:03 AM
GaudiaRay
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Quote:
Originally Posted by niman
Evidence for Human Transmission of H5N1 in Indonesian Cluster

Recombinomics Commentary

May 17, 2006

According to the World Health Organisation and experts familiar with the case, the family -- which raised a small number of pigs and had chickens, ducks and geese in the neighbourhood -- held a barbecue on April 29 when they ate pork and chicken.

The first person to fall ill was a 37-year-old woman, and two of her sons, her brother, sister, niece and nephew later fell sick. Except for the woman's brother, everyone has since died.

The above comments provide additional evidence for human-to-human transmission of H5N1in the Medan cluster. Local media reports indicate the mother developed symptoms on April 27, two days prior to the gathering. The mother was locally hospitalized and died May 4. The other family members developed symptoms around the time of her death and were hospitalized May 5. The first fatality was May 9, flowed by deaths on May 10, 12, 13, 14. This bimodal distribution of disease onset dates is common for familial clusters, and supports a mechanism of human-to-human transmission.

The size of the cluster (7 or 8) and number of fatalities (6) are the largest reported to date in Indonesia and raise concerns that the H5N1 transmission to humans is becoming more efficient. A similar increase in Turkey was linked to a change in the receptor binding domain (S227N) and similar changes in Indonesia are cause for concern. The only human HA sequence from Indonesia has a new glycosylation site and a novel cleavage site, but the sequence is from a fatality from last July.

More human sequences, including the current cluster, would be useful and sequences sequestered by WHO should be released immediately.

Media Link

Map
  #12  
Old May 17th, 2006, 10:09 AM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Liputan6.com, Hong Kong: results of the laboratory of the World of the Health Body (WHO) in Hong Kong, just recently decisive five from eight cases of the assumption of bird flu in the Karo Land, North Sumatra positive was infected by the virus avian sub-type influenza H5N1.
One of them was experienced by the patient was named Jonnes Ginting that up to now still is undergoing the maintenance in special isolation space of the Public Hospital Saint Elizabeth, Medan, North Sumatra [read: wanted to drink Coffee, Jonnes Ginting Again bolted].
These positive results were known after WHO checked the sample of blood and the saliva of eight bird flu casualties in the Karo Land.
Beforehand results of the inspection the laboratory of the Health and the Namru laboratory of the Body of the Department's Research And Development (Naval Medical Research the Unit) in Jakarta also pointed out five positive patients terjangkit bird flu.
This case was cluster sixth and biggest in Indonesia [read: Cluster in the Karo Land that most Big].
As for eight cases of bird flu that happened in the Karo Land for the last ten day claimed six fatalities.
While several patients, including Jonnes Ginting and Obviously Borung Ginting still were treated in RSU Saint Elizabeth.
However up to now results of the sample inspection of blood and the Clear saliva of Boru are not yet known.

http://www.liputan6.com/view/3,12299...147874844.html

(BOG/Coverage 6 SCTV)
  #13  
Old May 17th, 2006, 10:09 AM
DB DB is offline
Valued Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 1,393
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

"According to Dr. Tjandra, Indonesia is now in the third stage, consisting of limited human transmission, normally between family members. To be considered in the fourth stage, said Dr. Yoga, there must be 25 confirmed cases of the virus."

This statement is incorrect and I suggest Dr. Yoga go back and read the requirements again. They are pretty straight forward.

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic/phases.htm

Phase 3: Human infection(s) with a new subtype but no human-to-human spread, or at most rare instances of spread to a close contact.

Phase 4: Small cluster(s) with limited human-to-human transmission but spread is highly localized, suggesting that the virus is not well adapted to humans.

Phase 3 allows for "rare instances" of spreading TO A close contact. I repeat TO A, as in 1, close contact. There is NO mention of clusters in Phase 3.

Everyone got that, Phase 3 does not mention anything about clusters.

Phase 4 however does. To be in Phase 4 you need only 1 cluster with limited human-to-human transmission which is highly localized.

You DO NOT need clusters of 25.
You DO NOT need two clusters of eight.

Once again the pandemic phases are ignored or changed when they are reached.

Last edited by DB; May 17th, 2006 at 10:29 AM.
  #14  
Old May 17th, 2006, 10:13 AM
GaudiaRay
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Default Indonesian incapacity to reason once again surfaces

As some point, the Indonesian intelligencia will find it less painful to look objectively and think rationally than it is to offen sensibilities. It's coming.

Currently, their position is now:> ... according to Kandun, there has not been any evidence demonstrating a spread of the virus from human to human.

>To detect such transmission, Dr. Tjandra says, two procedures need to be implemented.

>a. Epidemiological surveillance, to detect the possible transmission of the virus from human to human with no history of infection from the same source, a simple example being the infection of approximately thirty Singaporean hospital workers by a SARS patient in 2003, who was known as a superspreader.

>b. Virology research, to detect new viruses formed from a merging of bird flu and its human equivalent. If a full merger has not taken place, hybrid viruses which formed internally of H5N1 and externally of H1N1 may be found, for example.

Firstly, "b." has nothing to do with deducing transmission of H5N1 other than at a possible but extreme evolutionary edge which itself is probably irrelevant to the evolution towards pandemic.

Secondly, surveillance has not a whit to do with bimodality. In this case 9 days are reported by YiGuan and recognized earlier than this pronouncement by many in this newsgroup.

Indonesia repeatedly imo proves itself a highly likely candidate for being among the first with a unique clade and with extensive, negative consequences of pandemia.
  #15  
Old May 17th, 2006, 10:28 AM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Commentary at

http://www.recombinomics.com/News/05...kasi_Grow.html
  #16  
Old May 17th, 2006, 10:51 AM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

http://www.mediaindo.co.id

Health Minister Siti Fadilah Supari said till at this time the government was still investigating the source of the spread of the bird flu virus (Avian influenza/AI) that happened in the Karo Regency, North Sumatra. "We will continue to carry out investigation to know from where his source." From manure, the pig or the other matter, he said in Jakarta, on Wednesday, ended appointed the Head of the supervisory Body Medicine and Food (BPOM) that just. Husniah Rubiana Thamrin Akib, that beforehand held the office of Bina Obat Rasional Director, was appointed as the BPOM Head replaced H Sampurno that held the office of the BPOM Head since 2001. According to Menkes, the case of bird flu that happened in this Karo Regency was not really expected considering in several last months did not have the case of bird flu to humankind in the regency. He also said that the Karo Regency also not was the area endemi bird flu to the poultry. It was further that Siti explained also that the big possibility of the virus kind that infected several citizens of the Karo Regency since some time before that still was the same as the kind of the infection in cases of the cause virus beforehand namely the A virus of type influenza the sub-type H5N1. "I did not want estimated but if according to results" sequencing the "Body and the WHO laboratory of Health Research And Development in Hong Kong, H5N1 meant his virus kind was still same," he said. Beforehand from the eight patients suspek this five patients among them ABS (died on May 10), RKK (died on May 9), BKK (died on May 12) and B (died on May 14) and JG (lived) was stated positive was infected by the AI virus by the Body of Health Research And Development (Balitbangkes) the Department of the Health. The five patients according to Pengendalian Breakingprep Penyakit Director General and Sanitation of the I Nyoman Kandun Health of the Department's Environment also were stated positive was infected by the virus H5N1 by the WHO Reconciliation Laboratory in the Hong Kongese University. With the increase of five positive cases just in the Karo Regency and one positive case in Surabaya (East Java) then the number of cases of bird flu in the homeland that was confirmed the WHO reconciliation laboratory in Hong Kong the total totalling
  #17  
Old May 17th, 2006, 11:04 AM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Bird flu in North Sumatra: the Failure of the Application of Health Epidemiology
Written by editorial staff
On Wednesday, on May 17 2006
By Fotarisman Zaluchu
With the most startled feeling, we read the news how bird flu happened in

North Sumatra. The discovery of the case of positive bird flu to humankind in North Sumatra happened in the Karo Regency. What meaning that? That meant North Sumatra will face a big homework. Bird flu was a serious problem where his mortality rate achieved almost 75 percent of the case that was found in Indonesia. In the other country, the mortality rate resulting from bird flu that was measured was based on Case Fatality Rate (CFR) in fact could reach 100 percent.
Then was not abundant if bird flu becomes a big threat for the world now. The world was threatened by the pandemic that spread, as happening in the HIV/AIDS. the Level of the death resulting from bird flu that very high made the problem of this illness become the horror illness. Almost all the countries made use of the supervision system that very tight to prevent the attendance of this bird flu virus in his country.
This dikarenakan the cost that emerged as a result of the problem, very much was present, very high. For his patient, every time the case happened, was needed by the handling that very especially to prevent the spread to that other that still was healthy. That no longer for fees has looked for the source of the spread, as well as the extermination of the source of the spread.
Epidemiology
Epidemiology was knowledge that studied concerning the problem of the illness, the spreading and factors that affected him. With epidemiology, was built the monitoring system, the detection and the control of the problem of the health easily. That dikarenakan in epidemiology, was known that his name of an amount of equipment that will help prevented or controlled the illness.
One of the applications of epidemiology was that each illness was present not very, but with the certain pattern. This pattern in connection with time, the place and the person. Meaning that, the illness had the certain pattern, places that enabled, as well as people that in an epidemiological manner very susceptible or was easy tertular or suffered the certain illness.
If made use of exact epidemiology, then bird flu in fact could have been guessed will happen where. Take the example of the matter of the place. In view of the fact that bird flu spread through the poultry, then they that was close to this region really will be easy tertular. Strangely indeed, the case that happened in North Sumatra apparently must be researched more far, because of cases of the spread that happened in Indonesia only around Java and South Sumatra. Why happened in the Karo Regency, this needed the research and epidemiology investigation.




Was related to the person, they who are affected by bird flu usually did not know the age and gender.However had the matter that could be done in an epidemiological manner, that is that is gotten by risky groups higher to get this illness.This risk was because of having the certain characteristics that increased the possibility of receiving the illness.They were the breeders, the birds breeder, the user of poultry fertiliser, as well as that was in the livestock breeding region.The problem is, indeed controlled this in our place really was difficult.Most locations of poultry livestock breeding very much close to humankind so as to facilitate the spread of the illness.Only with used the data concerning time, the place and the person above, then epidemiology could have guessed what will happen to an area.Then necessarily, policy makers have in this area applied one of the main weapons epidemiological, that is the mechanism surveilans.Surveilans essentially was efforts that were carried out continually to monitor and pay attention to the running of the illness.There is now the view, especially from the health senior figure in this area, that stated that North Sumatra did not experience the case of bird flu.This was the way of thinking that very much the incorrect usage.Not the discovery of the case of bird flu was uptil now caused at least by several matters.Firstly, each illness had that his name the natural story of the illness.Meaning that, without the intervention, each illness will follow a trip beginning with the stage where not yet emerging the sign up to the stage where the illness has been increasingly serious.The lack of the discovery of the case of bird flu could because the period that was passed was still not known, because was in the zone that was acknowledged as sub-clinical.Supposing that having the discovery of the case then, then this case has been slow in being handled because the case trip usually is long enough.



Secondly, not the discovery of the case of bird flu could also be significant that the detection system that was done did not satisfy to find the case.Meaning that the official of the health did not work maximal or detection equipment did not satisfy for that.On the other hand the discovery of the case also not weigh down that the case increased, but possibly because the official of the health just worked hard by making use of the sophisticated implement.So, who might not with too much hurried guaranteed that North Sumatra free from bird flu.This statement did not have a basis and completely lead astray even disturbed the community.Came back to the monitoring had a name surveilans, the problem of the health in fact could be controlled as early as possible if this equipment went well.The system surveilans gathered the data continually monitored.The monitoring was based on the graph that was made for that, as well as mengeksekusi the decision was linked with the jump of the illness.Escape him knowledge concerning the monitoring of bird flu in North Sumatra apparently because of the sector of the health and the sector passage, ignored surveilans.If this earlier could be applied, then as early as possible, will be done by the intervention in the area with the case of bird flu to the poultry, or the potential area experienced bird flu.The intervention quickly, epidemiology also used prangkat especially to do the intervention in the illness.That was followed by making use of three important questions, that is whether the program that has been done uptil now, then whether results that was reached with the program, following, moreover that could be done.Secara epidemiology, the first step to do the control of the problem of bird flu in this territory was to compile a team that was led by an epidemiology, that will move into two main territories, that is that was linked with the problem of the health, and that was linked with the sector apart from the health.The territory must be apart from the health involved definitely with got suport the data from the sector of the health.In this movement, the sector of the health as immediately as possible to do epidemiological investigation knew the location, the risk factor, the potential group and the spread stain of bird flu in this territory.Knowledge about this pattern as quickly as possible must be done, sembari treated his sufferer.Menyangkut orang, mereka yang terkena flu burung biasanya tidak mengenal umur dan jenis kelamin. Namun ada hal yang bisa dikerjakan secara epidemiologis, yaitu bahwa terdapat kelompok-kelompok berisiko lebih tinggi untuk mendapatkan penyakit ini. Risiko ini ada karena memiliki karakteristik tertentu yang meningkatkan kemungkinan memperoleh penyakit. Mereka adalah para peternak, pemelihara burung, pengguna pupuk ternak unggas, serta yang berada di kawasan peternakan. Masalahnya, memang mengendalikan hal ini di tempat kita sangat sulit. Kebanyakan lokasi peternakan unggas amat dekat dengan manusia sehingga memudahkan penularan penyakit.
Hanya dengan menggunakan data-data mengenai waktu, tempat dan orang di atas, maka epidemiologi sudah bisa menebak apa yang akan terjadi pada sebuah daerah. Maka seharusnya, penentu kebijakan di daerah ini sudah menerapkan salah satu “senjata” utama epidemiologis, yaitu mekanisme surveilans. Surveilans pada hakekatnya adalah upaya yang dilakukan secara terus menerus untuk memantau dan memperhatikan jalannya penyakit.
Ada sementara pandangan, terutama dari petinggi kesehatan di daerah ini, yang menyatakan bahwa Sumatera Utara tidak mengalami kasus flu burung. Ini merupakan cara berpikir yang amat salah kaprah.
Tidak ditemukannya kasus flu burung selama ini disebabkan setidaknya oleh beberapa hal. Pertama, setiap penyakit memiliki yang namanya riwayat alamiah penyakit. Artinya, tanpa intervensi, setiap penyakit akan menempuh sebuah perjalanan mulai dari tahap dimana belum muncul gejala sampai dengan tahap dimana penyakit sudah semakin parah. Tiadanya penemuan kasus flu burung bisa karena masa yang dilewati masih belum diketahui, karena berada dalam zone yang disebut sub-klinis. Andainya ada penemuan kasus pun, maka kasus tersebut sudah terlambat ditangani karena perjalanan kasus biasanya sudah cukup panjang.
Kedua, tidak ditemukannya kasus flu burung juga bisa berarti bahwa sistem deteksi yang dikerjakan tidak memadai untuk menemukan kasus. Artinya petugas kesehatan tidak bekerja maksimal atau perangkat deteksi tidak memadai untuk itu. Sebaliknya penemuan kasus juga bukan berati bahwa kasus meningkat, namun mungkin karena petugas kesehatan baru bekerja keras dengan menggunakan alat yang canggih.
Jadi, siapapun tidak boleh dengan terlalu terburu-buru menjamin bahwa Sumatera Utara bebas dari flu burung. Pernyataan tersebut tidak berdasar dan sama sekali menyesatkan bahkan meresahkan masyarakat.
Kembali kepada pemantauan bernama surveilans, masalah kesehatan sebenarnya bisa dikendalikan sedini mungkin jika perangkat ini berjalan dengan baik. Sistem surveilans mengumpulkan data terus menerus memantau. Pemantauan berdasarkan grafik yang dibuat untuk itu, serta mengeksekusi keputusan berkaitan dengan melonjaknya penyakit.
Luputnya pengetahuan mengenai pemantauan flu burung di Sumatera Utara kelihatannya karena sektor kesehatan dan lintas sektor, mengabaikan surveilans. Jika saja ini tadinya bisa diterapkan, maka sedini mungkin, akan dilakukan intervensi di daerah dengan kasus flu burung pada unggas, atau daerah yang potensial mengalami flu burung.
Intervensi
Secara cepat, epidemiologi juga menggunakan prangkat khusus untuk melakukan intervensi terhadap penyakit. Hal itu ditempuh dengan menggunakan tiga pertanyaan penting, yaitu apakah program yang sudah dikerjakan selama ini, lalu apakah hasil yang dicapai dengan program itu, berikutnya, apalagi yang bisa dikerjakan.
Secara epidemiologi, langkah pertama untuk melakukan penanggulangan masalah flu burung di wilayah ini adalah menyusun sebuah tim yang dipimpin oleh seorang epidemiologi, yang akan bergerak ke dalam dua wilayah utama, yaitu yang berkaitan dengan masalah kesehatan, dan yang berkaitan dengan sektor di luar kesehatan. Wilayah di luar kesehatan perlu dilibatkan tentunya dengan mendapatkan suport data dari sektor kesehatan. Dalam gerakan ini, sektor kesehatan sesegera mungkin untuk melakukan penyelidikan epidemiologis mengetahui lokasi, faktor risiko, kelompok potensial dan noda penularan flu burung di wilayah ini. Pengetahuan mengenai pola ini harus secepat mungkin dikerjakan, sembari mengobati penderitanya. Masyarakat di kawasan tersebut juga difokuskan perhatiannya pada pengenalan gejala, sehingga kasus flu burung bisa diminimalisir ledakannya.
Berdasarkan data-data yang dikumpulkan itu, maka sektor di luar kesehatan bisa mengerjakan pekerjaan pemusnahan unggas (jika diperlukan), pembagian desinfektan serta penerangan kepada masyarakat, bahkan isolasi transportasi lokasi yang terserang. Apa boleh buat, untuk mencegah penularan ini ke wilayah yang lebih luas, maka hal-hal tersebut harus dikerjakan untuk sementara waktu.
Berikutnya, seluruh perangkat kesehatan di daerah ini diminta siaga. Hadirnya flu burung di satu daerah yang berdekatan akan meningkatkan risiko penularan pada daerah lain, mengingat mobilitas penduduk yang sangat tinggi. Pendistribusian data dan perangkat yang berhubungan dengan informasi ini harus dikerjakan dan dilakukan. Semua daerah harus mengawasi perubahan-perubahan yang muncul di daerahnya. Petugas kesehatan harus segera melakukan pemeriksaan secara random pada lokasi yang rawan flu burung, serta melaporkan setiap kasus diduga (suspect) pada tahap yang paling dini.
Tidak ada salahnya menyiagakan masyarakat. Seluruh upaya yang mungkin bisa dikerjakan oleh masyarakat harus dilakukan. Promosi kesehatan juga harus dikerjakan di seluruh daerah.
Inilah kejadian flu burung pertama pada manusia di Sumatera Utara. Semoga saja ini bukan awal, namun segera bisa diakhiri dan memutuskan mata rantai penularan flu burung yang semakin mengglobal ini. Kita mungkin terlambat dalam mendeteksinya, namun jangan sampai terlambat dalam menanganinya. Aplikasi epidemiologi adalah kata kunci terhadap seluruh upaya pengendalian masalah kesehatan, termasuk flu burung. (Penulis bekerja di Badan Litbang Propsu/m)



http://www.hariansib.com/index.php?o...=4893&Itemid=9

  #18  
Old May 17th, 2006, 11:19 AM
DB DB is offline
Valued Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 1,393
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

http://msnbc.msn.com/id/12833266/
Bird flu confirmed in Indonesian family deaths
No sign of human-to-human transmission of virus; officials investigating
Reuters
Updated: 10:42 a.m. ET May 17, 2006

JAKARTA - At least five members of an Indonesian family have been infected with bird flu, the World Health Organization confirmed on Wednesday, after the case triggered widespread fears of human-to-human transmission.

There is no immediate evidence the H5N1 flu virus passed easily among at least seven members of the family in North Sumatra province. But experts said on Wednesday nothing could be ruled out and more testing was crucial.

In a day of fast-moving events, the WHO also said a caterer from Surabaya city in East Java had died of bird flu, while Indonesia’s health ministry said local tests had confirmed a 12-year-old boy from Jakarta who died four days ago was infected with H5N1. Both cases are separate from the Sumatra case.

Clusters of human infections are worrying because they indicate that the virus might be mutating into a form that is easily transmissible among humans. That, experts say, could spark a pandemic in which millions might die.

For the moment, the virus is mainly a disease in birds and is hard for humans to catch.

The WHO and other health experts are puzzled over the source of infection in the Sumatran family, six of whom have died.

“The possibility that they may have been infected by the same source is still there,” said Sari Setiogi, the WHO spokeswoman in Indonesia. More animal samples would be collected for testing.

“Any time we have a cluster, it raises the suspicion that human-to-human transmission may have occurred. We don’t rule out either way ... it is too early to make any conclusion because investigations are still going on,” Setiogi said.

The WHO has sent a team to Kubu Simbelang village in Karo regency, about 50 km (30 miles) south of Medan.

Samples taken from six members of the family were sent to a WHO-affiliated laboratory in Hong Kong and five tested positive for H5N1. Results of the sixth were still pending.

Samples from the first person to fall ill, a 37-year-old woman, were not sent to Hong Kong but she is considered to have been infected with H5N1. She fell ill on April 27 and later died.

No suggestion of mutation
Asked about the possibility of a change in the virus and whether there had been human-to-human infection in Sumatra, a WHO spokeswoman in Geneva said, “It is too early to draw any conclusions.

“I have not heard any suggestion that the virus is any different,” Maria Cheng said, referring to the laboratory tests in Hong Kong.

Indonesia’s Health Ministry said the Sumatra cluster was not a case of human-to-human transmission.

“The spread was through risk factors from poultry or other animals. There is no proof of human-to-human,” Nyoman Kandun, director-general of disease control, told Reuters.

But an Indonesian agriculture official who declined to be identified said animal tests have not shed any light.

“There is a big question mark. Blood samples from all kinds of animals from chickens, ducks, geese, birds, pigs, cats and dogs turned out negative so far. Manure has also been checked. The result is negative,” the Jakarta-based official said.

Hong Kong virologist Guan Yi said the long time lag of nine days between the first and last victims showing symptoms of the disease was unusual.

“If they were all infected by the same source, their onset time (of illness) would have been closer, but that is not the case ... The later cases may involve the possibility of human-to-human transmission,” Guan told Reuters.

“They may have infected one another ... but we have no evidence. This needs to be investigated by the locals.”

The latest deaths bring to at least 30 the number of people killed by bird flu in Indonesia, more than half since the start of the year.

Among the confirmed deaths on Wednesday was a 38-year-old catering businesswoman from Surabaya who had dealt with live pigs and pork meat before she died last week.

Not including the latest cases, bird flu has killed 115 people worldwide, the majority in east Asia, since reappearing in 2003. Virtually all the victims caught the disease from poultry.

The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization said on Wednesday that H5N1 had been found in a duck in Laos, but there was no sign the virus was spreading.

On Tuesday, a senior Indonesian Agriculture Ministry official said the virus had been detected for the first time in poultry in remote eastern Papua province.
  #19  
Old May 17th, 2006, 11:22 AM
DB DB is offline
Valued Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 1,393
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

"...Hong Kong virologist Guan Yi said the long time lag of nine days between the first and last victims showing symptoms of the disease was unusual.

“If they were all infected by the same source, their onset time (of illness) would have been closer, but that is not the case ... The later cases may involve the possibility of human-to-human transmission,” Guan told Reuters..."
  #20  
Old May 17th, 2006, 02:12 PM
DB DB is offline
Valued Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 1,393
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4990708.stm
Eyewitness: Bird flu grips Sumatra
Ivan Zaidir is a poultry breeder in northern Sumatra. He describes the confusion surrounding the latest outbreak of bird flu, which has claimed the lives of five people in the region.


I am very concerned, mostly because we know very little about what has happened.

There is confusion but not outright fear just yet.

One of my colleagues visited the village and what the villagers say they need is clarity.

There are many questions. If it really is bird flu, then it is farmers that should be affected. They have the most daily direct contact with birds. Most of the victims here are people that can only be indirectly related to chickens.

In the village, houses are very close together. If one house has bird flu surely the other houses should be contaminated? People are asking why only one extended family has been affected.

Where has it come from? That's the missing link that needs to be solved.

'We value human life'
We value our industry and our daily business, but mostly we value human life.

So we will do whatever we can to prevent this from occurring and spreading further. We have tightened our bio-security, we limit humans coming into poultry farms.

But wild birds could also be responsible for this outbreak.

The people in the village are afraid of losing their livelihoods and they too don't know what exactly is going on.

Poultry is a source of income for tens of thousands of people. It is very important that we discover where this has come from before anything worse happens.

In the end, everybody comes to the same conclusion: nothing is clear.
  #21  
Old May 17th, 2006, 04:03 PM
GaudiaRay
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Default Surabaya Pigs Finally Transmit H5n1 To Humans



Bird flu human-to-human infection feared

18 May 2006

JAKARTA: The World Health Organisation confirmed six more human cases of bird flu infections in Indonesia, including five members of a family whose case has triggered fears of human-to-human transmission.

"There are six confirmations. One from Surabaya and five from Medan. One from Medan is still alive," said Sari Setiogi, the WHO's Indonesia spokeswoman.
An outbreak of H5N1 bird flu involving up to eight members of a family at Medan in North Sumatra province has worried health agencies around the world but a Health Ministry official said on Wednesday it was not a case of human-to-human transmission.
"The spread was through risk factors from poultry or other animals. There is no proof of human to human," Nyoman Kandun, director-general of disease control, said.
"The world is watching us. We are not being hasty," he added.
Four of the five family members have died and samples from a further three people believed to be part of the family cluster of infections are still being tested.
The WHO has sent a team to the area near Medan. The agency said it was on alert for signs the virus is mutating into one that can be easily transmitted between people, a development that could signal the start of a pandemic in which millions could die.


Such a mutation could occur anywhere there is bird flu, the WHO says.
Kandun said authorities were still trying to identify the source of the virus in the cluster case in Kubu Simbelang village in Karo regency, about 50km (30 miles) south of Medan.
But an Indonesian agriculture official who declined to be named told Reuters tests had shed no light on the case.
"There is a big question mark. Blood samples from all kinds of animals from chickens, ducks, geese, birds, pigs, cats and dogs turned out negative so far. Manure has also been checked. The result is negative," the Jakarta-based official said.
Some reports have suggested chicken manure used as fertiliser might be the link. Infected birds can excrete large amounts of the H5N1 virus and this can be one way it can spread to birds, and people.
The sixth of the cases confirmed on Wednesday was a 38-year-old catering businesswoman from Surabaya who had dealt with live pigs and pork meat before she died last week.
The latest deaths bring the number of Indonesians who have died from bird flu to 30, by far the highest death rate in the world this year from the disease.
Bird flu has killed 115 people worldwide, the majority in east Asia, since reappearing in 2003. Virtually all the victims caught the disease from poultry.
The H5N1 virus is endemic in much of Indonesia. On Tuesday a senior Agriculture Ministry official said H5N1 had been detected for the first time in poultry in remote eastern Papua province.
http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/0,2106,3671206a12,00.html

Last edited by sharon sanders; May 17th, 2006 at 04:29 PM.
  #22  
Old May 17th, 2006, 10:47 PM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Medan -- MIOL: Lima the person probable bird flu in North Sumatra (North Sumatra) positive contracted the virus avian influenza (AI) H5N1 or bird flu.That was based on results of the sample inspection of blood and wipe off kerongkongan that was examined in the Hong Kongese laboratory.They who were stated positive contracted the bird flu virus, Anta Ginting, Boni Karokaro, Roy Karokaro, Brenata Tarigan, and Johannes Ginting alias Jonnes.Four including dying.Whereas Jonnes was still being treated in the Public Hospital (RSU) the Pilgrim Adam the Owner, Medan.The section head the Health of the Province North Sumatran Fatni Sulani said his side accepted results of the laboratory inspection of Hong Kong, on Tuesday night (16/5)."Six sample probable that was sent by us positive bird flu," said Fatni in the Office Governor North Sumatra, on Wednesday (17/5).According to Fatni his side also sent totalling 57 sample to Health Research And Development (Litbangkes) the Department of the Health that was expected by direct contact with the bird flu sufferer.From results of the laboratory inspection of Litbangkes Department of Health totalling six samples including being negative and the rest of them still in the inspection.The "sample that has been stated by the negative was not sent by us again to Hong Kong," said Fatni.(KN/OL-02).http://www.mediaindo.co.id
  #23  
Old May 17th, 2006, 10:52 PM
HenryN HenryN is offline
Retired
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 20,265
Default Re: Indonesia BF - 5/17/06

Liputan6.com, Bandung: the Handsome Hospital of Sadikin Bandung, West Java, was still treating a patient who was expected terjangkit bird flu till Wednesday (17/5).The Aan condition that already five days were treated never improved following the existence of the disturbance to the lungs.Aan was treated in isolation space and still must make use of the ventilator as respiratory aids.Was based on the team's medical note, the child 13 years were still critical.Apart from the temperature of his body was still high, mucus on the citizen's lungs of Unpleasant Sand, Cisarua, of this Bandung Regency, still could not be cleaned by all of them so as to disrupt breathing.While the sample test of blood as well as the Aan waste was still being researched in the Department's laboratory of the Health, Jakarta.According to the community health centre side, around the Aan residence indeed was gotten a poultry farm.Strongly the assumption, the virus emerged from the livestock breeding considering before falling ill, Aan could with his friend cross the area of livestock breeding.(YAN/Patria Hidayatdan Guidance Divine Guidance)
http://www.liputan6.com/view/7,12303...147920547.html
Closed Thread


Currently Active Users Viewing This Thread: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is On


Disclaimers:

The reader is responsible for discerning the validity, factuality or implications of information posted here, be it fictional or based on real events. Moderators on this forum make every effort to review the material posted on this site however, it is not realistically possible for our staff to manually review each post.

The content of posts on this site, including but not limited to links to other web sites, are the expressed opinion of the original authors or posters and are not endorsed by, or representative of the opinions of, the owners or administration of this website. The posts on this website are the opinion of the specific author or poster and should not be construed as statements of advice or factual information.

Not all posts on this website are intended as truthful or factual assertion by their authors. NO posts on this website should be considered factual information on face value alone. Users are encouraged to USE DISCERNMENT and do their own follow up research while reading and posting on this website. FluTrackers.com Inc. reserves the right to make changes to, corrections and/or remove entirely at any time posts made on this website without notice. In addition, FluTrackers.com Inc. disclaims any and all liability for damages incurred directly or indirectly as a result of a post on this website.

This site is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. You should not assume that this site is error-free or that it will be suitable for the particular purpose which you have in mind when using it. In no event shall FluTrackers.com Inc. be liable for any special, incidental, indirect or consequential damages of any kind, or any damages whatsoever, including, without limitation, those resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether or not advised of the possibility of damage, and on any theory of liability, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of this site or other documents which are referenced by or linked to this site.

Finally, FluTrackers.com Inc. reserves the right to delete, correct, or make changes to any post on this website without notice at any time for any reason.

Fair Use Notice:
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Users may make such material available in an effort to advance awareness and understanding of issues relating to public health, civil rights, economics, individual rights, international affairs, liberty, science & technology, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C.Section 107, the material on this site is distributed to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.

In accordance with industry accepted best practices we ask that users limit their copy / paste of copyrighted material to the relevant portions of the article you wish to discuss and no more than 1 paragraph, and in no case more than 50% of the source material provide a link back to the original article and provide your original comments / criticism in your post with the article. Please remember you are responsible for what you post on the internet and you could be sued by the original copyright holder if you do not honor these rules.

If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the boundaries of "Fair Use" and legitimately infringes on yours or your clients copyright

we may be contacted concerning copyright matters at:

FluTrackers.com Inc.
c/o Sharon Sanders
1676 Hibiscus Avenue
Winter Park, Florida 32789
Phone: 407-745-1513
E-Mail: flutrackers@earthlink.net

In accordance with section 512 of the U.S. Copyright Act our contact information has been registered with the United States Copyright Office. "Safe Harbor" noticing procedures as outlined in the DMCA apply to this website concerning all 3rd party posts published herein.

If notice is given of an alleged copyright violation we will act expeditiously to remove or disable access to the material(s) in question.

All 3rd party material posted on this website is the copyright of the respective owners / authors. FluTrackers.com Inc. makes no claim of copyright on such material.

For more information please visit: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

Please be aware any communications sent complaining about a post on this website may be posted publicly at the discretion of the administration.

FluTrackers Does Not Provide Any Medical Advice:

FluTrackers, Inc. does not provide medical advice. Information on this web site is collected from various internet resources, and the FluTrackers board of directors makes no warranty to the safety, efficacy, correctness or completeness of the information posted on this site by any author or poster.

The information collated here is for instructional and/or discussion purposes only and is NOT intended to diagnose or treat any disease, illness, or other medical condition. Every individual reader or poster should seek advice from their personal physician/healthcare practitioner before considering or using any interventions that are discussed on this website.

By continuing to access this website you agree to consult your personal physican before using any interventions posted on this website, and you agree to hold harmless FluTrackers.com Inc., the board of directors, the members, and all authors and posters for any effects from use of any medication, supplement, vitamin or other substance, device, intervention, etc. mentioned in posts on this website, or other internet venues referenced in posts on this website.

By using and/or accessing this site, either passively or actively, you are agreeing to all of the above conditions. Also, by using and/or accessing this site, either passively or actively, you agree to conduct all business and legal affairs related to this website in the jurisdiction of Flutrackers.com Inc. which is registered in Central Florida, USA.

These Disclaimers are subject to change at anytime.

Email the Webmaster with questions or comments about this site at flutrackers@earthlink.net


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 12:55 AM.


H1N1 Influenza Swine Flu Avian Flu Infectious Diseases. Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.7
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Template-Modifications by TMS