November 9th, 2012, 07:51 AM
Join Date: Feb 2006
lived about 41,000 years ago, found in the remote Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia,
The mtDNA from the finger bone differs from that of modern humans by 385 bases (nucleotides)
difference between modern humans and Neanderthals is around 202 bases
difference between chimpanzees and modern humans is approximately 1,462 mtDNA base pairs
time of divergence between Denisovan and Neanderthal sequences is 640,000 years ago
time between both of these and the sequences of modern Africans is 804,000 years ago.
Mitochondrial Eve is estimated to have lived around 200,000 years ago, most likely in East Africa
mitochondrial DNA accumulates mutations at the rate of approximately one every 3,500 years
Y-chromosomal "Adam" probably lived in Africa; however, this "Eve" lived much earlier than
this "Adam" – perhaps even some 50,000 to 80,000 years earlier
so, from the genbank data I would assign these 12 types:
(see the picture)
mitochondrial nucleotide differences
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 >Index/m1 0 6 9 21 17 21 29 50 55 59 185 373 m1
2 >Index/m2 6 0 11 25 21 25 35 54 59 63 187 375 m2
3 >Index/m3 9 11 0 14 24 28 36 55 60 64 192 376 m3
4 >Index/rCRS 21 25 14 0 38 40 48 69 70 76 200 382 rCRS
5 >Index/m4a 17 21 24 38 0 30 40 59 62 70 188 382 m4a
6 >Index/m4b 21 25 28 40 30 0 28 49 56 64 188 378 m4b
7 >Index/m4c 29 35 36 48 40 28 0 38 46 50 180 363 m4c
8 >Index/m4d 50 54 55 69 59 49 38 0 55 60 192 366 m4d
9 >Index/m4e 55 59 60 70 62 56 46 55 0 34 188 363 m4e
10 >Index/m4f 59 63 64 76 70 64 50 60 34 0 188 367 m4f
11 >Index/m5 185 187 192 200 188 188 180 192 188 188 0 372 m5
12 >Index/m6 373 375 376 382 382 378 363 366 363 367 372 0 m6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
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