|Avian Flu Diary FluTrackers Member Fla Medic's Blog:
Paramedic EMT-II (Ret.), Computer software designer, Building contractor, Cruising sailor, Humorist. . . obviously unable to hold a job.
October 3rd, 2012, 03:54 PM
Editor-in-Chief & President
Join Date: Feb 2006
AFD - Companion Animals & Reverse Zoonosis
hat tip Michael Coston
Companion Animals & Reverse Zoonosis
The undisputed ruler of my house
When we think of zoonotic transmission
of diseases – we usually think of a pathogen from moving from animals to humans
– but in truth, diseases can go in both directions.
Luckily, most viruses are fairly selective about the type of cells they will invade, what organ systems they will attack, and even what species they will infect.
This explains why a virus might affect a dog, or a cat, or a bird, yet not affect humans. This species selectivity is known as a `host range'.
Most viruses generally have a fairly narrow host range (there are exceptions, of course. Like rabies
). But one of the surprises that came out of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic
was that virus’s ability to infect wide range of species.
In December of 2009 in a blog called USDA Listing Of Animals With H1N1
we looked at some early reports of pandemic H1N1 infecting a variety of animals. Along with swine
(5), and a Cheetah
(1) as having contracted the virus.
(Click to load PDF file
The infection of swine with an H1N1 swine-like virus wasn’t unexpected, nor was the susceptibility of ferrets a big surprise. Ferrets are often used in influenza research because they are susceptible to the virus.
The jumping to cats was less expected, given that the only other flu virus known to affect cats was the H5N1 bird flu
. Dogs were not immune (see US: Dog Tests Positive For H1N1
In October of 2010 we looked at a study in the EID Journal: Pandemic H1N1 Infection In Cats
that found that - while producing less severe symptoms - cats infected with the 2009 H1N1 virus showed similar pathogenic processes to cats infected with the HPAI H5N1 bird flu virus
While it may not happen very often - with flu season upon us - the potential exists for humans pass one of the seasonal flu viruses on to their pets (or to farm animals).
Apart from obvious concern over our pet’s wellbeing, the other worry is the possibility that an influenza’s promiscuous behavior could lead to the creation of a mutated or reassorted strain of the virus.
It is probably more likely that reassortment would occur in swine
, or humans –
but other species (like dogs, cats, ferrets, skunks, etc.)
cannot be ruled out.
All of which brings us to a press release today from the University of Oregon, which talks about the need to study `reverse zoonotic’
influenza infections in pets. I’ve only included excerpts, follow the link to read:
Onset of flu season raises concerns about human-to-pet transmission
CORVALLIS, Ore. – As flu season approaches, people who get sick may not realize they can pass the flu not only to other humans, but possibly to other animals, including pets such as cats, dogs and ferrets.
This concept, called “reverse zoonosis,” is still poorly understood but has raised concern among some scientists and veterinarians, who want to raise awareness and prevent further flu transmission to pets. About 80-100 million households in the United States have a cat or dog.
It’s well known that new strains of influenza can evolve from animal populations such as pigs and birds and ultimately move into human populations, including the most recent influenza pandemic strain, H1N1. It’s less appreciated, experts say, that humans appear to have passed the H1N1 flu to cats and other animals, some of which have died of respiratory illness.
There are only a handful of known cases of this phenomenon and the public health implications of reverse zoonosis of flu remain to be determined. But as a concern for veterinarians, it has raised troubling questions and so far, few answers.
The researchers are surveying flu transmission to household cat and dog populations, and suggest that people with influenza-like illness distance themselves from their pets. If a pet experiences respiratory disease or other illness following household exposure to someone with the influenza-like illness, the scientists encourage them to take the pet to a veterinarian for testing and treatment.
The primary concern in “reverse zoonosis,” as in evolving flu viruses in more traditional hosts such as birds and swine, is that in any new movement of a virus from one species to another, the virus might mutate into a more virulent, harmful or easily transmissible form.
“All viruses can mutate, but the influenza virus raises special concern because it can change whole segments of its viral sequence fairly easily,” Loehr said. “In terms of hosts and mutations, who’s to say that the cat couldn’t be the new pig? We’d just like to know more about this.”
Veterinarians who encounter possible cases of this phenomenon can obtain more information from Loehr or Jessie Trujillo at Iowa State University. They are doing ongoing research to predict, prevent or curtail emergent events.
This press release also makes mention of the laboratory interspecies transmission of a canine H3N2 (avian-origin)
influenza virus in Korea. You’ll find my coverage of that story at the link below:
Interspecies Transmission Of Canine H3N2 In The Laboratory
Posted by Michael Coston at 4:39 PM 0 comments Links to this post
DVBID: West Nile Infections Continue Record Pace
(Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases
) has updated their West Nile numbers
as reported to them through October 2nd, and as expected the number of new cases, and deaths, continues to rise.
2012 West Nile virus update: October 2
As of October 2, 2012, 48 states have reported West Nile virus infections in people, birds, or mosquitoes. A total of 3,969 cases of West Nile virus disease in people, including 163 deaths, have been reported to CDC. Of these, 2,010 (51%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (such as meningitis or encephalitis) and 1,959 (49%) were classified as non-neuroinvasive disease.
The 3,969 cases reported thus far in 2012 is the highest number of West Nile virus disease cases reported to CDC through the first week in October since 2003. Almost 70 percent of the cases have been reported from eight states (Texas, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Dakota, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Illinois) and a third of all cases have been reported from Texas.
The record pace continues, and we can expect – given incubation period of 2 or 3 weeks
, and since some people may succumb only after weeks of illness – that we will see these numbers continue to rise for the next couple of months.
The incidence level of the more serious neuroinvasive
form of West Nile disease
– which can produce encephalitis, meningitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis – is illustrated by the following chart.
Although the peak period of transmission for WNV may have passed, infected mosquitoes are still out there and are still biting and infecting people.
So we still need to heed the advice of our local health departments to follow the `5 D’s’
of mosquito protection:
And finally, to find out about the West Nile threat in your area, you can visit the DVBID website below:
Links to State and Local Government West Nile Virus Web Sites
Click on a state to link directly to their West Nile virus Web page.
See list below for additional city-level and main State Health Department Web sites.
Posted by Michael Coston at 1:52 PM
"May the long time sun
Shine upon you,
All love surround you,
And the pure light within you
Guide your way on."
"Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, lies your calling."
“In a gentle way, you can shake the world.”
Be the light that is within.
Currently Active Users Viewing This Thread: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts
HTML code is On
The reader is responsible for discerning the validity, factuality or implications of information posted here, be it fictional or based on real events. Moderators on this forum make every effort to review the material posted on this site however, it is not realistically possible for our staff to manually review each post.
The content of posts on this site, including but not limited to links to other web sites, are the expressed opinion of the original authors or posters and are not endorsed by, or representative of the opinions of, the owners or administration of this website. The posts on this website are the opinion of the specific author or poster and should not be construed as statements of advice or factual information.
Not all posts on this website are intended as truthful or factual assertion by their authors. NO posts on this website should be considered factual information on face value alone. Users are encouraged to USE DISCERNMENT and do their own follow up research while reading and posting on this website. FluTrackers.com Inc. reserves the right to make changes to, corrections and/or remove entirely at any time posts made on this website without notice. In addition, FluTrackers.com Inc. disclaims any and all liability for damages incurred directly or indirectly as a result of a post on this website.
This site is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. You should not assume that this site is error-free or that it will be suitable for the particular purpose which you have in mind when using it. In no event shall FluTrackers.com Inc. be liable for any special, incidental, indirect or consequential damages of any kind, or any damages whatsoever, including, without limitation, those resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether or not advised of the possibility of damage, and on any theory of liability, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of this site or other documents which are referenced by or linked to this site.
Finally, FluTrackers.com Inc. reserves the right to delete, correct, or make changes to any post on this website without notice at any time for any reason.
Fair Use Notice:
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Users may make such material available in an effort to advance awareness and understanding of issues relating to public health, civil rights, economics, individual rights, international affairs, liberty, science & technology, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C.Section 107, the material on this site is distributed to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.
In accordance with industry accepted best practices we ask that users limit their copy / paste of copyrighted material to the relevant portions of the article you wish to discuss and no more than 1 paragraph, and in no case more than 50% of the source material provide a link back to the original article and provide your original comments / criticism in your post with the article. Please remember you are responsible for what you post on the internet and you could be sued by the original copyright holder if you do not honor these rules.
If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the boundaries of "Fair Use" and legitimately infringes on yours or your clients copyright
we may be contacted concerning copyright matters at:
c/o Sharon Sanders
1676 Hibiscus Avenue
Winter Park, Florida 32789
In accordance with section 512 of the U.S. Copyright Act our contact information has been registered with the United States Copyright Office. "Safe Harbor" noticing procedures as outlined in the DMCA apply to this website concerning all 3rd party posts published herein.
If notice is given of an alleged copyright violation we will act expeditiously to remove or disable access to the material(s) in question.
All 3rd party material posted on this website is the copyright of the respective owners / authors. FluTrackers.com Inc. makes no claim of copyright on such material.
For more information please visit:
Please be aware any communications sent complaining about a post on this website may be posted publicly at the discretion of the administration.
FluTrackers Does Not Provide Any Medical Advice:
FluTrackers, Inc. does not provide medical advice. Information on this web site is collected from various internet resources, and the FluTrackers board of directors makes no warranty to the safety, efficacy, correctness or completeness of the information posted on this site by any author or poster.
The information collated here is for instructional and/or discussion purposes only and is NOT intended to diagnose or treat any disease, illness, or other medical condition. Every individual reader or poster should seek advice from their personal physician/healthcare practitioner before considering or using any interventions that are discussed on this website.
By continuing to access this website you agree to consult your personal physican before using any interventions posted on this website, and you agree to hold harmless FluTrackers.com Inc., the board of directors, the members, and all authors and posters for any effects from use of any medication, supplement, vitamin or other substance, device, intervention, etc. mentioned in posts on this website, or other internet venues referenced in posts on this website.
By using and/or accessing this site, either passively or actively, you are agreeing to all of the above conditions. Also, by using and/or accessing this site, either passively or actively, you agree to conduct all business and legal affairs related to this website in the jurisdiction of Flutrackers.com Inc. which is registered in Central Florida, USA.
These Disclaimers are subject to change at anytime.
Email the Webmaster with questions or comments about this site at firstname.lastname@example.org
All times are GMT -5. The time now is 08:08 PM.